Adam Smith’s biography
The exact date of birth of Adam Smith is unknown. It is known only that he was born in June, 1723 and was a baptize 5 numbers of this month in the small town Kirkcaldy, located not far from Edinburgh.
Adam’s father was a custom officer. He perished after half-year to birth of boy. His mother was daughter of the large English landowner. She brought up a son.
In 14 years old Adam Smith enters prestige University of Glasgow, where his enormous interest shows up in studies at once. Adam strenuously studies ethic bases of philosophy under the direction of the known Scottish philosopher Francise Hichstone. In spite of the fact that Hichstone became the real tutor for Adam Smith, many his theories were afterwards refuted by Adam.
By the end of educating in an university Adam Smith wins a grant for payment of educating in famous Oxford, where he entered in 1740.
After graduation of Oxford in 1746 he returns to Scotland, where begins to prepare and give lectures on history, rhetoric, philosophy and economy for the students of university in Edinburgh. Exactly in this period of the life Adam Smith forms basis of the economic theory that consists in aspiration to express activity of man from three directions:
- from the point of view of morality and moral;
- from state and civil positions;
- from positions economic.
Popularity and universal recognition of his live performances by many known scientists of that time, resulted in that in 1751 a twentyseptennial lecturer is appointed by the professor of logic in University of Glasgow. And yet in a year he holds a position of professor of philosophy of moral that is considered much more prestige.
In 1758 Adam Smith is appointed by a dean, that undoubtedly is confession of his merits before an university. All spare time he dedicates to professional activity. Many politicians, aristocrats and science figures are included in the circle of his commonunication. In particular, among his near acquaintances are reckoned a chemist Joseph Black, inventor of steam engine James Watt, famous philosopher David Um.
During work in an university Adam Smith publishes the first really large work «Theory of the moral feelings», that later will underlie «Research about nature and reasons of people’s riches», - books doing his world-famous and putting beginning of such science, as a political economy.
In 1763 Adam Smith gets generous suggestion to be accompanying in the foreign trip of young count Backlu - receiving son known thereto time politician of duke Backlu. Smith accepts. The not last role at the acceptance of positive decision was played by the material side of question - Smith was offered salary in size of 800 pound sterlings to the end of his life, that considerably exceeded his fees in an university.
A trip lasts more than two years. A route lies through Toulouse, Geneva, where Adam Smith met with the famous European philosopher by Voltaire, and Paris. In Paris Adam Smith takes an acquaintance with many European philosophers and scientists the ideas of that he uses in writing of «Research about nature and reasons of people’s riches».
Smith ends a book only in 9 years after a return to Scotland. These throughout the year Adam Smith lives in solitude with his mother.
In «Research about nature and reasons of riches of people» Adam Smith evolves an idea about labour, as main source of national riches. The questions of division of labor and private enterprise are examined in detail. Also a statement is hardly criticized about the necessity of government control of country’s economy.
After the publication of book in 1776 and so high Smith’s authority is still more consolidated and after two years in 1778 he is appointed by the leader of custom service of Scotland, that he manages to his death in July, 1790.