A bit about lombards
Lombard (pawn-shop) is establishment giving out credits on the security property.
It is well-proven historians, that pawn-shops existed Ancient China yet, and acts, regulating work of these specialized financial organizations, were first passed and prescribed in ancient Greece and Rome.
In medieval Europe the similar system of receipt of credits was used everywhere. So, in France 15 centuries, usurers - natives from Lombardy (from here and a word "lombard" happened), gave out short-term loans on the security property, and already in 16 century the first municipal pawn-shops called to protect townspeople from destruction or hungry death were founded in Nuremberg.
Not only the middle and more subzero layers of population but also aristocracy came running to services of lombards. In opinion of separate historians, Isabel I la Cat?lica pawned the valuables in order that Columbus could equip ships for a journey to America.
Also, to our days an interesting case reached with the son of the last French king Lewie-Philip, that gave an amusing nickname to the oldest lombard, is a "aunt". He said to his mother, that gave the clock to the aunt, and actually a clock was stopped up in an order to give a card debt.
But, however, the special popularity was used by lombards for workers, chandlers and artisans.
In 19 century in Europe there were the so-called "Shoe lombards" the shoe of workers came forward in that a mortgage. Getting the payment on Friday, workers bought the shoe back, in that there was not a necessity among a week, and went put on shoes on dances, and on Sunday evening a shoe again surrendered in a lombard.
Lombards on territory of Russia
In Russia on the decree of Ann Ioanovna mints began to give out money on the security gold and silver decorations as early as 18 century.
The first independent lombard was open in 1888 in Vologda. The Russian merchant and patron of art became his organizer Hristofor Semenovich Ledentcov. Regulations and organizational structure of the Vologda lombard appeared so successful, that were copied by many lombards created later through this country. After twenty years more than 90 lombards were counted in Russia already.
In afterrevolutionary years the banking system of country was nationalized, and lombards are abolished. Nevertheless, soviet government, on a background a difficult economic situation, in 1922-1923 made decision about networking state lombards in the system of establishments of domestic consumer services, that lasted to disintegration of the USSR in 1991.
Simplicity and speed in the receipt of loan are a cause of unchanging merchatability on services of lombards during many centuries. In our time, especially after an economic crisis, lombards have nearly more clients, than banks.
Today lombards are taken as a mortgage by appliances, cellular telephones, motor transport, but most popularity at a population credits use on the security jeweller decorations.
The process of receipt of money is simple: give a thing - get money. The sum of loan makes from 40 to 80 % from the market value of mortgage property and set on the basis of mutual agreement. For the receipt of money, usually, it is enough to show passport, the agreement of mortgage is whereupon made on a concrete term under a certain percent. In case of unredemption a thing is an offer for a sale.
Financial crisis, reduction of profits of population, desire to save the usual standard of living - here principal reasons of unprecedented popularity of lombards in our days.